Poultry Farming – Page 1

Before 1950, Poultry keeping in India was largly a backyard venture. During last 3-4 decades Indian poultry industry has shown excellant growth and India has emerged as the fourth largest egg production and 3rd largest in broiler production in the world. Poultry farming is a profitable venture as a means of lively hood and income prosperity for hilly areas. Poultry farming can play an important role in various socio – economic development by way of providing employment, supplemantary income and productive food to all section of Uttarakhand. The small and marginal farmers of Uttarakhand may choose alternative method for generating good income with their limited land and water use. The demand of eggs and poultry meat is continuously on in erease in Uttarakhand, but the production of eggs and poultry meat in the state is not sufficiant to meet out the demand. Keeping in view of demand of poultry eggs and meat in the Uttarakhand and its potential for income and employment generation, there is a need to increase the poultry production in the state.

Merits: In comparison to other livestock species poultry has following qualities as:

  1. Poultry needs small land and resources than needed for other livestock species.
  2. Back yard poultry farming specially for BPL families can do on local feeds and kitchen waste, which may be additional source of income of women.
  3. Poultry meat and eggs may be a best solution of malnutrition problem of the state.
  4. Poultry manure is rich in nutriants in comparison to other livestock speetes manure and has good for vegetable and other crops.
  5. The growth rate of poultry (Broilers) is very fast. If reared in organized way, a house hold can earn Rs. 15 -20 per bird net profit at the market age (4-5th weeks) of the bird.

Objectives: The basic objectives of poultry farming in Uttarakhand may be as follows:

  • To generate self employment in unemployed youth, school drop out and retired personnel.
  • To alter economic and nutritional status of the rural people of Uttarakhand through poultry farming.
  • To increase the production potential of agriculture land by using poultry manure.
  • To find out suitable poultry strains for dual broiler and layer farming at differant attituoles of the state.

Poultry occupies a very important place in all domesticated animals. A large chunk of income from livestock industry is contributed by poultry industry. Hence, its importance is increasing day by day in developed and developing countries. Poultry includes a group of birds comprising chickens, ducks, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl; geese etc. out of these chickens occupy an important place.

Domestication of poultry is practiced from ancient time but it is very difficult to say at what time they are first domesticated in the world. Its first authentic records are available in Asian sub-continent. Domestication of poultry is not new in India. They were present 2500 B.C. in Indus Valley Civilization. From India, poultry birds traveled to different parts of the world. In ancient time poultry birds were reared for different purposes such as for its fighting ability. In old civilization, the cocks are known for their morning alarm and the selection is also done for these traits. Their fighting ability is more responsible for their spread than there nutritive value of the chickens. The selection and breeding of chickens was done for their fighting ability by Greek people while it was for the benefit of farmers by Roman people. In ancient time some breeds of chickens are comparable with modern breeds of poultry with regards to egg production. It is assumed that the evolution of modern day chickens have taken from the following four breeds of wild bird belonging to genus Gallus:

  1. Gallus gallus (Red jungle fowl)
  2. Gallus lafayettei (Ceylone jungle fowl)
  3. Gallus sonneratii (Grey jungle fowl)
  4. Gallus varius ((Java jungle fowl)

Some of the scientists are of the opinion that the modern poultry have its origin from Red jungle fowl while Asian breeds have their origin from more than one breed of jungle fowl.

Breeding and selection of poultry in ancient time were done primarily on the basis of region and the requirements of people living in that region and the breeds were known by the name of the regions such as Rohde Island Red, New Hampshire etc. Previously the poultry birds were known for its fighting abilities but now days they are more important due to highly nutritive eggs and poultry meat and the breeding and selection of poultry is being done for these traits.

Why poultry farming?
Poultry are efficient converter of food into egg and meat and feed items unsuitable for human consumption and bye products can be used successfully as feed for poultry. Egg contains 12.0% protein, 11.3% fat and 1% carbohydrate white broiler meat contains 18.2% protein and 6. 2% fat of higher biological value.

Poultry farming can be done on small as well as large scale. When it is done as small scale venture, the investment is also minimal. Hence it is an important enterprise foe self employment.

  1. Due to small generation interval the returns from this venture is quite quick compared to other livestock species. In layer farm income starts giving after 6 months while in meat production it starts after 2 months.
  2. Beside the use of poultry as food its manure is a boon to agriculture farming. Forty layer birds produce one ton of poultry manure in 18 months on deep litters which sufficient for 1 acre of land. Poultry manure is a rich source of organic matter nitrogen; phosphorus average poultry manure contains 2.6% nitrogen, 2.0% phosphorus and 1.5 % potash and trace elements.
  3. The biggest advantage with the poultry is that it can be done as family business where all the members whether male or female, adult or children, old or young can contribute substantially for successfully running of this enterprise. Thus it provides sufficient job opportunities for all the members of family.
  4. Poultry farming can be done in the back yard and due to this reason it is playing an important role in the social and economic uplifting of  weaker section of the society.

Progress of poultry industry in India: In India till 1960 poultry farming is usually confined to Back yard poultry farming due to low production of Indian breeds, lack of technical knowledge, poor consumption of eggs and meat uneconomic rates and certain misnomers regarding poultry farming were the main hurdles responsible for the poor growth of this sector.

During the past three decades poultry Industry has experienced tremendous growth rate due to changed thinking, technical progress and better health management of poultry birds.  At present poultry farming is a scientific and organized industry and playing an important role in creating job opportunities. At present the whole country is covered with poultry units. Govt. private sectors both are playing important role in the development of this sector.

For the first time in 1957, three thousand (3000) chicks of improved breeds were brought under USID programme. Five thousand (5000) fertile eggs of improved breed i.e. white leghorn, New Hampshire and white Cornish were also brought. Three leading private companies of America had established their farms in Delhi, Pune and Karnal.

These companies proved the good source of quality chicks. The industries related to poultry farming also experienced rapid growth. Various companies engaged in manufacturing of the inputs such as equipments, feed, medicines and vaccines have played significant role in supplying these inputs. Due emphasis has been given Five Years Plan in India. For fulfilling the goal of poultry development and exploiting the potential of improved breeds of poultry, Central Poultry Breeding Farms were established at Delhi, Shimla, Bhubneshwar and Mumbai. Thousands of chicks were supplied to farmers through these farms. Organized breeding programmes were also run by these farms. HH 260 and IBL 80 are the results of these programmes.

Central Avian Research Institute, Izat Nagar also developed the improved breeds of layers and broilers. Due emphasis was also given on the development of Indigenous breeds of poultry with the help of imported breeds of poultry. Now with these efforts, sufficient quantity of hybrid chicks of broilers and layer are also available in India with sufficient availability of balanced feed, vaccines, medicines and other inputs. Per capita consumption of poultry meat and egg is low as compare to developed countries. Hence, there are ample opportunities in this sector.

Problems in poultry industry and challenges:
Poultry development is chiefly confined in cities or near by cities. At present rural areas are still lacking in basic infra structure for poultry development and adequate know-how is also not available in the rural areas.  In spite of the extensive development in this field, the efficient experts are in shortage. With the result farmers have to depend upon chick suppliers, feed and medicine dealers and such other persons for their technical needs which may result in lesser profits and some time losses also.

A large number of companies have come in the field of production of poultry feed, vaccines, medicines and equipments etc. With the results, it is difficult to select quality product because most of the companies are interested in their own profits and ignoring the interest of the farmers.

Due to lack of proper distribution and marketing facilities, farmers have to suffer loss in spite of high production while consumers have to pay higher cost of the poultry produce.
The cost of various poultry inputs are increasing day by day with no proportionate increase in poultry products and with the result there is drop in profits.

In present context, it is necessary that the maximum production be done at minimum inputs. Hence, high quality technologies be developed in this field and subsequently be transferred to farmers. A strict quality control measures should be applied at each stage of poultry production.  An effective and efficient marketing system should be developed for marketing the poultry products to ensure proper and satisfactory price for their produce.

In rural areas the poultry production is practiced as backyard venture. Hence, suitable breed and techniques should be developed so that the poultry farming can be done at very low cost with better efficiency.

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