Goat Farming

Goat is the 1st domesticated animal in the ancient age and is a Poor Man’s Cow.

Because the goat meat is lean & has low fat, it is liked by all. The demand of goat meat is increasing, even though the price is high.

They are profitable under stall fed condition.

They are Prolific. They give twins & triplets.

Capital Investment of purchase of Goats is very low. For a price of 1 cross-bred Cow, one can purchase 10 quality goats.

Goats & their kids can be sold and encashed anytime. They are like bearer blank cheques.

Goat has shorter period of pregnancy. (Short Gestation Period )

They are resistant to diseases. Since they are stall fed, the expenditure on Medication/ treatment is marginal.

Their population in the country is continuously increasing, though 60% of the goats are slaughtered every year.

Products available from Goats are MUTTON / MILK / MANURE / SKIN & LUSTROUS FINE HAIR.

Cognizable foreign exchange is available from export of live Goats/carcasses/goat meat/skin. The farmer is bringing additional fallow lands under cultivation. Cities & Villages are also expanding fast & because of this the grazing land is decreasing day by day.Therefore a necessity has arisen to continue to maintain the goats by way of Stall Fed System.

Total life of Goats = 15 years…Productive — 7 years. Pregnancy Period {Total = 150 days } +/- 2 days.

Manure available from 1 adult goat in 24 hours – 1 kg…

Mortality in percentage overall is 3% {with proper management} The vaccination & deworming schedule to be followed strictly.

Indian meat is preferred in the world.

Stall-fed goats in intensive integrated farming:

STALL-FED GOATS can ideally fit into the intensive integrated farming system (IIFS). The small animals are the most efficient converters of farm and crop residues into excellent organic manure. Several farmers have successfully run stall-fed goat farms, and they have found that such an integrated farming venture was more productive and profitable as well.

Goats relish the stalks and residues of most of the nutritious cereals, and they do well particularly when mixed with green fodder such as grasses and subabul. Special goat-feeds can be formulated using farm-grown millets and oilcakes. As the cost of the feed and also the labor gets distributed over other farming operations, the actual cost of raising the goats becomes minimal. The rich goat manure is ideal for fertilizing fishponds and all other crops. It is also a good base material for vermi-composting.

Goat farming needs less capital when compared with dairying, and the animals can be raised in small farms. The floor space requirement per adult animal is about one square meter. Stall-fed goat farming is an ideal occupation for the small, marginal and landless agricultural laborers. A properly fed and managed milky goat will yield at least as much milk (on average two liters per day) as low yielding desi cows. The she-goat will deliver 2-4 kids at each parturition after a short gestation period of 150 days.

A few exotic goats such as Saanen, Toggenburg, Angora, Anglo-Nubian, British Alpine, French Alpine have been found to be well adapted to Indian conditions, and they are crossed with superior Indian breeds to get good progeny. The popular Indian breeds are Sirohi, Jamnapari, Surti, Tellicherry, Beetal, Malabari, Barbari and Gujarati. The milky-type animals are ideal for integrated farming system.

A small shed with good cross ventilation is enough to keep a small herd. A deep-litter system with paddy husk and groundnut shell as bedding material is ideal for raising goats. The biological activity in the litter keeps the housing warm in winter and cool in summer. The bedding material will last for about six months, and after that it will have to be changed.

The bedding has to be turned periodically to remove the foul odour in the pen.

The bedding material collects all the dung and urine efficiently and it is found to be an enriched organic manure. An adult goat will add about a tone of rich manure to the farm every year.

Though the goats are robust animals and are resistant to many diseases, they need to be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease, rinder pest and tetanus regularly. The animals need to be dewormed at least twice a year to keep in good stead.

Goat farming with stall-feeding can be managed in small yards just like poultry, and it will prove to be an economical and rewarding enterprise for the small, marginal and landless farmers.

Goats require energy, protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber (bulk) and water. Energy (calories) is usually the most limiting nutrient, whereas protein is the most expensive. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances of vitamins and minerals can limit animal performance and lead to various health problems. Fiber is necessary to maintain a healthy rumen environment and prevent digestive disturbances. Water is the cheapest feed ingredient and often the most neglected.
Many factors affect the nutritional requirements of goats: maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, fiber production, activity and environment. As a general rule of thumb, goats will consume at least 3% of their body weight on a dry matter basis in feed. The exact percentage varies according to the size (weight) of the goat, with smaller animals needing a higher intake (percentage-wise) to maintain their weight. Maintenance requirements increase as the level of the goat’s activity increases. For example, a goat that has to travel farther for feed will have a higher maintenance requirement than a goat in a feed lot. Environmental conditions also affect maintenance requirements. In cold and severe weather, goats require more feed to maintain body heat. The added stresses of pregnancy, lactation and growth further increase nutrient requirements. The following chart gives the nutritional requirements for various classes of meat goats.

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